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Vocal Aerobics: A 40-week Workout for Developing, Improving and Maintaining Vocal Technique by J. Mark Baker

Review by Rachel Sherry, April 2022

This is a daily programme of exercises and instruction for the voice over 40 weeks, supported by audio examples available for download or streaming via a unique access code on the title page. These examples can be adjusted for both tempo and key and allow the setting of loop points, making the sound files a valuable and flexible resource. The introduction suggests that the programme can be used both by beginner and more experienced singers as well as voice teachers and choral directors, whether the programme is followed on a daily basis or as a book to dip into as required.

Can anyone learn to sing from a book? As teachers, we know exactly what we mean when we give a direction, verbally or in writing, but that is no guarantee that it is understood the way it is meant! Herein lies the potential problem with such a book, where some directions are presented without qualification, although to be fair, much is clearly explained. In this volume, the text is generally lucid, with good physical advice, for example in consonant and most vowel formation, together with hints on monitoring activity and possible pitfalls. Explanations are largely clear when introducing concepts like open and closed vowels, continuant sounds together with voiced and unvoiced consonants. The recorded examples provide further clarification.

Although the book says nothing about the style of singing it teaches, the introduction recommends a 'balanced' (simultaneous) onset and the frequent reiteration that the larynx needs to be low and exercises such as a 'yawn-sigh' place it in a western classical genre. Will everyone agree with the need for a low laryngeal position, exactly what constitutes 'low' or whether we actually mean 'yawn' or a 'pre-yawn' manoeuvre, and if so, how much? In the introduction, the notion of a yawn is tied up with the idea of an open throat. 'Do you feel the back of your tongue descending?' [on yawning] is certainly likely but could encourage tongue depression given there is no further explanation or caveat. Not all vocal pedagogues will concur with the assertion that 'In truth, adult singers have only two vocal registers, head voice......and chest voice' The direction on day 1, week 1 that 'when you've contracted your stomach muscles as much as you can, your lungs should be fairly empty' for example would benefit from greater clarity, at week 3 the term 'support' ('take a good low breath, support the hiss as you exhale') is introduced, presumably with the assumption that we all know and mean the same thing. In week 2, I thought the phrase that for an EE vowel 'lips and teeth assume a smiling position' could be taken to mean a cheesy grin! IPA symbols are not used in the book, and whilst this may help those unfamiliar with IPA, it makes little allowance for the way a particular accent might change pronunciation of a vowel, especially UK ones. These are a few examples of directions and statements I thought could be open to misinterpretation for someone working alone or with a teacher whose approach may be at odds with some of the statements contained within.

Putting aside the reservations above, there is much to recommend in the carefully planned, incremental exercises, encompassing virtually every aspect of singing. I liked the many exercises for a particular vowel and precise changes of vowel with the same set of consonants. Clarity and variety of consonants are covered. Range, articulation, flexibility, breath management, rhythm, intonation, dynamics, expression, interpretation and more are covered, and the pieces (one every 8 weeks) are combined with useful practice tips and further exercises pertinent to the song's characteristics and potential pitfalls. These tips can be applied in other songs too, encouraging independent learning. The more I looked at this book, the more I warmed to it for its thoroughness and accessibility.

In conclusion, whilst not everyone will agree with some of the assertions made in the book, it is a resource that I think many teachers will find valuable in supporting student development.

Published by Hal Leonard. Visit to find out more

How to Practise Music by Andrew Eales

Review by Rachel Sherry, March 2022

This small (sized between A5 and A6), concise 80-page guide to practice, in the widest sense of the word, packs a punch. It carries a foreword by Paul Harris, who has himself written influentially on the subject. Eales' book is laid out in 50 sections, focusing on the crucial issue – how can any musician, whatever their instrument or preferred genre, practise more effectively? There is a little reference to research, and it is clear the author is familiar with many ideas informing current thinking. This publication is full of accessible, supportive, imaginative, wise practical advice and strategy for today's learner, gleaned from Eales' many years as a music educator. The book is divided into seven main sections, 'How to Be Motivated', How to Plan Your Practice', 'How to Warm Up', 'How to Practise Core Skills', 'How to Practise Pieces', 'How to Practise Mindfully', and finally, 'How to Practise Playing'. The sub-sections in each category are packed with practical ideas, for example in the 'How to Plan Your Practice' section, subjects covered go beyond advice on structuring what is done in the time available and include relevant contemporary topics like 'Consideration for Neighbours' and 'Using Practice Apps'. The book ends with a section on 'Getting Ready to Perform' with wise advice on ways to encourage peak performance. Most of the ideas and strategies contained in the publication are just as relevant for use in lessons as well as practice sessions.

I think this is a great book and recommend it highly as an easily digestible guide. Eales recognises the challenges faced by any musician. The reader is encouraged to focus, plan, reflect and explore in a spirit of creativity, mindfulness and engaged curiosity. It presents a fairly comprehensive compendium of useful and wide-ranging ideas with warmth and understanding without ever being patronising or didactic. Elements of motivation, progress and satisfaction are all acknowledged, both in the nitty-gritty of planned practice and the joy of playfulness and discovery. Reasonably priced to make a good recommendation for a student or their parent/carer to buy and small enough to pop into one's teaching bag, my only criticism is the size of the print, coming out at a font size of between 5 and 6 which will put some readers off. I speak as someone who increasingly needs long arms and good light even with a current optician's prescription.

Published by Hal Leonard. Visit to find out more

Oxford Solo Songs – Christmas

Review by Rachel Sherry, November 2021

Oxford University Press continues its successful series of collections for solo voice with the new publication of contemporary Christmas songs by some of the living composers on the OUP roster. I think they will be a welcome addition to shelves with a selection of 14 accessible and appealing seasonal songs in versions arranged or written for solo voice, with several written this year. These are available in high and low voice editions, with the latter a tone to a major third lower than the former. Ranges vary from a 9th to a 13th, the latter in Sarah Quartel's 'Snow Angel'. Keys are generally well chosen in order not to tax a developing voice, print is clear and the piano accompaniments fall well under the hands. Duration for each song is shown on the score. The companion website features downloadable backing tracks and a PDF of the optional 'cello solo for one piece. These useful resources are available via the unique access code printed in each book.

Arrangements of three carols each by John Rutter and Bob Chilcott hardly need an introduction, and these, together with two by Will Todd make up over half the collection, alongside settings by Cecilia McDowell, Toby Young, Alan Bullard, Becky McGlade and two by Sarah Quartel. Moods are varied, some contemplative, such as in Alan Bullard's 'Scots Nativity' and others sparkling such as Sarah Quartel's 'This Endris Night'. I found all of the songs attractive and was particularly taken with Cecilia McDowell's setting of the Christina Rossetti poem 'Before the Paling of the Stars' first published in a version for SATB in 2013. There are settings of familiar texts such as Chilcott's 'Sweet was the Song' and 'Midwinter', using  the words of 'In the Bleak Midwinter' together with 'What Child is This' in a new setting by Becky McGlade.

I have started using this collection and students have been enthusiastic about the repertoire therein, with a few already planning to use songs in both concerts and competitions. I am sure there is fertile ground for OUP to produce solo versions of more of its choral repertoire and have always thought that a collection of Bob Chilcott or John Rutter works would sell well.

Visit to find out more

Where Are All the Black Female Composers? by Nathan Holder

Review by Pamela Hay, September 2021

A music teacher colleague recommended a few music blogs to me a few years ago, including one belonging to a saxophonist and author, Nate Holder. I was so taken by his perspective on racism and unconscious bias in music that I subscribed and have read it ever since. As I am in the process of looking for a new composer to hire, I was delighted to purchase a copy of his book, Where Are All the Black Female Composers?

Written for perhaps ages 7 and up, and beautifully illustrated by Charity Russell, the book profiles over 20 Black female composers beginning with Chiquinha Gonzaga (1847-1935) and continuing to the present day. It makes the point that this book “focuses on Black women who have written in a classical or neo-classical style,” rather than the gamut of styles from jazz to pop.

The book is concise, making it accessible for younger readers. Each profile is essentially a biography but with fascinating anecdotes and context, so the book serves as a good first introduction to these women, as well as as a quick reference guide for the professional musician. I liked that each profile lists some notable pieces by that composer, in addition to having a separate playlist at the back of the book, complete with QR code for easy access.

I’m ashamed to admit that I had heard of only some of the composers, which is why the canon of Western Music doesn’t change very quickly: if we listen to only the names we already know, those are the names who get performed, which means that they are the only names we ever know. We should know the names of Florence Price, the first African American woman to have a composition played by a major symphony orchestra, or Margaret Bonds, who studied with Nadia Boulanger, or Pamela Z, who won the Prix de Rome.

The included quiz helped me commit these names to memory as I explored the music, and I found myself constantly cross-referencing the book’s content to the playlist at the back.

Nathan Holder’s writing expertly balances the important yet potentially dry facts with personal details and colourful anecdotes, that leaves the reader curious to read further about - and listen more to - these talented women. He conveys the despair of trying to collect the music of these women, partially explaining the injustice that has meant that their names are not as prominent as they should be. For example, Nora Holt’s almost complete oeuvre was stolen from her storage facility, and Avril Coleridge-Taylor sometimes used a nom de plume.

I would have enjoyed a little more of a preface, with a “how to use this book” detailing that the women have been listed chronologically and so additional women’s names have been inserted between the profiles, but that is a minor quibble with what is an essential book: the perfect opportunity for the curious musician to educate herself on these unjustly neglected composers.

You can find out more about Nathan Holder at, where you can find this and other books that he has written.

Where Are All the Black Female Composers? by Nathan Holder
Published by Holders Hill Publishing
Paperback ISBN 978 1 999 75303 0
eBook ISBN 978 1 9997530 4 7

Breath by James Nestor

Review by Janet Shell, April 2021

It was random: I clicked on a link to a podcast where James Nestor was speaking about his latest book ‘Breath’ and 20 minutes in I was hooked. So much so, I ordered the book in hardback and it arrived a couple of days later.
The subtitle is ‘The New Science of a Lost Art’ and from the opening words I found it a very easy if slightly uncomfortable read.

Uncomfortable because as I read further into the book, I was conscious of my own breathing, trying to match the optimum breath for a calm and healthy stable state body which turns out to be 5.5 seconds in and the same out.

What I will say is that this man took himself on a wild journey of discovery about breathing that involved him becoming engaged at many different levels and going through experiments that will make your hairs stand on end. Not least is the one where he (and a friend) willingly let leading Otolaryngologist at Stanford, Dr. Jayakar Nayak, plug the nose with silicone plugs so they can only breathe through the mouth for ten days before reversing the experiment and taping the mouth so that only nose breathing can occur. Needless to say, the ability to breathe through our nose is crucial for our health and later in the book, James is convinced that we can all learn to do this, even if we traditionally have trauma in this arena. He makes a convincing argument.

The book is a mix of his own story, the experiments he undertakes, and his reflective journey through all this. He interviews various breathing specialists: from trained deep-sea divers, to a choir conductor who claims that using the diaphragm to exhale stale air can cure respiratory disease, to yoga, to somebody who suffers ‘empty nose’ syndrome – something of a misnomer as the sensation is quite the opposite, i.e. sensing always having clogged up nasal passages despite them being perfectly clear. It can occur after nasal surgery and its symptoms include dizziness, gasping for air and at its worst, a sense of drowning, leaving the person in a constant state of panic.

He talks with Dr Marianna Evans, a dental researcher who has spent years looking at the mouths of human skulls both ancient and modern. She shows that in ancient times humans had much wider airways, leading to better aligned teeth, which aided our breathing. However, as our brain grew, it needed more space and so the face shortened and the mouth shrank leaving us with a smaller nose through which to breathe in and filter air. Our adaptation came at a cost.

Inevitably, Nestor looks at various spiritual systems that use the slowing of breath to bring about a mesmeric trance-like state, and I suppose with equal inevitability I was left with the sense of this book being partly about his own spiritual search. Nevertheless, alongside all this he also checks out athletes and sports mavericks who are experimenting with alternative breathing techniques.

In many ways, all you have to do is switch on your computer and all this research is already ‘out there’ just waiting to be found. For me there was a missed opportunity by not asking what professional singers know about breathing and managing airflow: what happens when we attach sound to air. I feel there is a missing chapter on the understanding that so many of us singers continue to reveal.

Ultimately, what we are buying into here is his personal route map, and his writing is very accessible: it flows well and it does parcel a lot into one place so is none the worse for that. Personally, I found it thought-provoking and stimulating. The Appendix brings together many exercises from all different disciplines to try out, including an explanation of why nasal humming is so good for us. It is all to do with nitric oxide which increases oxygenation, widens capillaries, and relaxes smooth muscles. By humming we increase the levels of nitric oxide up to 15 times and benefit ourselves hugely in turn.
I suspect that on re-reading, I might come to the conclusion that really the whole book is about making sure you breathe through your nose and not your mouth. Amen!

You can find out more about James Nestor on his website

Breath: The New Science of a Lost Art by James Nestor
Published by Penguin Life
ISBN 978-0-241-28907-5

An die ferne Geliebte

Review by Christopher Goldsack, December 2020

Bärenreither have recently published a new Urtext edition of Beethoven’s Lieder cycle An die ferne Geliebte (To the distant beloved), edited by Barry Cooper. This collection of six songs, performed without a break between songs, is often considered the first song cycle, though as the editor points out, none of its structural features were new. As one of the mainstays of the Lieder repertoire, a considered and scholarly new edition is certainly welcome. The print is clear and typesetting avoids the sterile appearance of many modern editions. As one would expect in a publication in this series, there is a thorough introduction which discusses the context in which the work was composed, talks about the research questions and makes an appraisal of performance practice. The editorial aims – to create an accurate text and to explain the meaning of notational uncertainties – seem to be amply fulfilled. At the back of the edition the editor has provided a reference to the sources used and a detailed listing of all the editorial questions raised. As a singer who performed these songs on numerous occasions, I found the discussions compelling. The editor has also provided English translations which are at once easy to read, but faithful to the German text, though no word for word translation is provided.

The collection has always been popular with male Lieder singers. The songs are attractive and accessible for both performer and audience.

Though simple and strophic, and making no great technical demands on the singer, the songs are nonetheless are very poignant, offering a wonderful vehicle for a tender and heartfelt performance, demanding artistry that belies their simplicity. Many have wondered if Beethoven had anyone in mind when he wrote the songs.

Just a few years earlier, in 1812, he wrote a passionate love letter to a woman known as his Immortal Beloved, whose identity is disputed, and the parallels are certainly compelling – requited love, but a relationship that cannot be fulfilled. Barry Cooper discusses the unusual care the Beethoven took in the publication process. It is clear this collection was dear to the composer.

This new edition certainly offers a performer the clearest and most authoritative reading of the musical text yet. The question that surprised me most was why the score is only published in the one key – the original key, for tenor. This certainly limits the market for the edition. The editor provides some tantalising thoughts as to why the songs should not be transposed, and it is clear that, in his view, transposition is inappropriate He even suggests that the range would still be manageable by a high baritone, which I would contest – manageable perhaps, but unappealing. This has actually made me look into the matter transposition. To understand the argument, one has to look into tuning and temperament. Like many, I had grown up being taught that Bach championed even temperament – so that transposition of material written after this was not a problem. I realise now that the evolution of temperament was much more complex than that suggests, and that Beethoven was not writing for what we understand to be even tempered tuning. Transposition would certainly have changed the feel of the songs. Does that mean they were never transposed? Was Beethoven less of a pragmatist than Schubert, writing his great song cycles just a decade later and surely writing for the same pianos? Schubert wrote his great cycles for tenors, but his music was championed by the baritone Vogl, with his blessing. Furthermore, these days tuning to anything other than even temperament is a specialist area. Realistically most modern performances are done on modern instruments with modern tuning. Whilst I now understand Barry Cooper’s reasoning, I feel that most singers will simply use alternative editions if they need to – I can only hope they at least compare their editions with this one to benefit from his undoubted scholarship.